The Kingfish Stock Identification Project was instigated in 1985 to provide information on the stock structure of yellowtail kingfish relevant to management. At that time, the N.S.W. catch had more than doubled since 1982 to approximately 360 tonnes per annum and concern was expressed at the possibility of overexploitation of localized stocks. Of more than 8,000 kingfish tagged by recreational fishermen in New South Wales, some 450 had been recaptured at or near the point of release. Only 17% of fish at liberty for six months or more were recaptured more than twenty kilometers from their release point. Tag returns indicated that juveniles and some adults remain in restricted localities for long periods (more than one year) suggesting the possibility of discrete stocks or resident populations vulnerable to overexploitation.