The seafood industry is facing unprecedented challenges (WAFIC 2020 Strategy, FRDC R&D 2015).
The networks established by CESSH have laid a strong foundation to attract national and international
investment partners. For the first time, the whole industry along the supply chain and post harvest is
working together to achieve outcomes that benefit the WA (and national seafood industry) and the
health of the Australian population. It is essential that the industry is able to remain viable and indeed
grow, within the constraints of an ever changing economic, technological and food security landscape.
There is a need for a continued go-to place that the industry can access to gain support to develop
new products, investigate novel and improved means of harvest, reduce production costs and provide
evidence of the value of consuming seafood. CESSH needs to build on existing strong capacity areas
and establish expertise in areas that are currently not available in WA to service the growing and
diverse needs of industry. This could afford industry a point of difference in the provision of world class
support to answer research and science questions that impact on growth, quality or profitability in a
timely fashion, an essential service for a primary industry.
For each processing waste case study, an individual report summarising the methods and results was produced and provided to the industry partners as well as generally being made available as publishable appendices to this report. Some of the outcomes were for non-human products such as Patagonian Toothfish, tuna and other finfish hydrolsate for fertiliser, aquaculture feed or pet food, composting products, low quality oil and extracted enzymes for potential addition to detergents. However there were also some high value food products produced including scampi roe, Blue Mussel stock, pearl meat adductor muscle and fish maw (swim bladders). In total, of the eleven industry requested case studies commenced three new products have been commercialised (tuna hydrolysate, scampi roe and pearl adductor muscle), and a number of other products are in market/commercial trials.
There are other opportunities for value-adding from fish bones, such as extraction of collagen, collagen hydrolysates and hydroxyapatine, and production of gelatin, but these were considered beyond the scope of this project and will likely be put forward as potential student projects.
This project was commenced after the request for an enzyme sample from Proctor & Gamble. The hypothesised lower optimal temperature of the enzymes from Patagonian Toothfish may be highly effective in cold water laundry detergents. This project will attempt to extract and determine proteinase and lipase activity of Patagonian Toothfish digestive enzymes.
The Biomax process for fish is described below:
The fish waste material is loaded in a specialized digester along with BM1 enzymes at a ratio of 1ton waste to 1Kg enzymes. A dried waste material was also added (eg coconut coir, sawdust). The digester is a compact and enclosed reactor with sturdy internal mixer that ensures homogenous digestion of waste. BM1 enzymes are a specially formulated cocktail of naturally occurring microbes that break down complex organic compounds inside the waste into simpler organic matter at high speed. This waste/enzyme mix is then mixed, aerated and heated at 80oC within the digestor for the next 24 hours. After 24 hours, nutritious animal feed or fertilizer can be produced in powdery form to be discharged from a separate conveyor belt. This environment friendly zero-waste process does not produce any solid or liquid by products, only the dried product. This product is cooled for 2-3 days. The resulting product is shelf-stable at room temperature for at least 12 months.
There are three different grades for the pearl meat, based on the age of the shell ,each with slightly different characteristics making each size ideal for particular markets listed below:
• 1R (First Operation): 60 pieces/kg, best for restaurants. Sweeter and tenderer flesh generally harvested from younger pearl oysters. Sell for less if used for producing dried pearl meat.
• 2R (Second Operation): 45 pieces/kg, best for restaurants.
• 3R (Third Operation): 30 pieces/kg, best for producing dried pearl meat. Large and meat can be chewier.
The pearl meat currently harvested is sold to restaurants in the domestic market, with chefs serving them in raw sashimi style and cooked format. The company now has a focus to sell their product to premium food service establishments, both domestically and internationally. To export, the company must meet the requirements set by AQIS, FSANZ Food Standards Code and the regulatory requirements of the importing country. The product must have a best before date to be placed on the product before being exported. The company would also like to provide recommendations on best practice thawing and shelf-life of fresh and thawed product.
Whole frozen farmed barramundi air bladders were supplied by Sealanes and Dried Seafood Corporation. The Sealanes air bladders were from an aquaculture facility whereas the Dried Seafood Corporation samples were from wild harvest.
Two trials were conducted, Trial 1 without manual internal cleaning, and Trial 2 with manual internal cleaning
Seafood waste streams offer commercial opportunities for value adding and coproduct development, in either seafood and or related industrial product markets. Dr Janet Howieson, on behalf of Curtin University, is working with the two commercial seafood processors to assess, develop and implement ways to better utilise and commercially monetise their respective seafood waste streams.
This project evaluates the two waste stream case studies (Paspaley Pearling Company, and FishTrade International) from a commercial cost-benefit viewpoint. The report summarises these cases and their commercial prospects. The report also presents a standard cost-benefit template to guide similar evaluations.