Project number: 2013-711.40
Project Status:
Completed
Budget expenditure: $83,000.00
Principal Investigator: Janet Howieson
Organisation: Curtin University
Project start/end date: 14 May 2015 - 14 Dec 2016
Contact:
FRDC

Need

The seafood industry is facing unprecedented challenges (WAFIC 2020 Strategy, FRDC R&D 2015).
The networks established by CESSH have laid a strong foundation to attract national and international
investment partners. For the first time, the whole industry along the supply chain and post harvest is
working together to achieve outcomes that benefit the WA (and national seafood industry) and the
health of the Australian population. It is essential that the industry is able to remain viable and indeed
grow, within the constraints of an ever changing economic, technological and food security landscape.
There is a need for a continued go-to place that the industry can access to gain support to develop
new products, investigate novel and improved means of harvest, reduce production costs and provide
evidence of the value of consuming seafood. CESSH needs to build on existing strong capacity areas
and establish expertise in areas that are currently not available in WA to service the growing and
diverse needs of industry. This could afford industry a point of difference in the provision of world class
support to answer research and science questions that impact on growth, quality or profitability in a
timely fashion, an essential service for a primary industry.

Objectives

1. Sub Program 1: Waste minimisation and management - optimisation of supply chains to reducewaste
total utilisation of seafood products
and innovative product development fromunder-utilised species
2. Sub Program 2: Retailer 2020 - Develop an understanding of multi-channel consumer retailenvironments (current and future trends) to support Australian businesses to capitalise on newand emerging oppoprtunities
3. Sub Program 3: Food policy research - maintain currency of expertise and knowledge in:regulation of food labelling and food laws
nutrition and health claims
nutritional dietary guidelinesand the human health benefits of seafood to inform industry marketing initiatives and nutritionalclaims
4. Sub Program 4: Research advisory service - Develop a technical advice service to provideassistance along the supply chain
assist and upskill industry to apply for research funds
providefood technology advice (e.g. nutritional composition)
provide health benefit advice to industry(market advantage)
and develop tailored industry and consumer resources
5. Sub Program 5 - Education, communication and extension - respond to industry post harvesttraining needs
inform industry of relevant research findings in a variety of formats appropriate tothe end-users
and build post harvest research and scientific capacity that is imbedded within theindustry.
6. Sub Program 6 - Collaborative manufacturing hub - investigate and trial collaborativemanufacturing hubs to reduce costs and maximise efficiencies in developing and commercialisingnew products

Report

ISBN: 978-0-9925568-5-3
Authors: Dr Janet Howieson Kerri Choo Andrew Tilley Tuna Dincer Rachel Tonkin Dechen Choki
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.06 MB
2013-711.40-DLD.pdf

Summary

This report summarises the research undertaken under FRDC 2013/711.40: New Opportunities for Seafood Processing Waste
 
Industry consultation and the development of a modified value chain analysis framework for new products from processing waste resulted in eleven industry case studies being identified for the project: these included products for potential waste transformation such as on board Patagonian Toothfish waste, land-based tuna and other finfish waste, abalone shuckings, pearl oyster adductor muscle, scampi roe, octopus heads and offal, swim bladders of various species and out of specification Blue Mussels. A variety of different waste transformation techniques were trialled including enzyme and acid hydrolysis of frames, offal and bones, curing of roe, drying and milling, enzyme extraction, oil extraction, composting and flavoured stock production. As a result a variety of products for different outcomes were produced, and compositional and shelf-life analyses completed on each of them.
For each processing waste case study, an individual report summarising the methods and results was produced and provided to the industry partners as well as generally being made available as publishable appendices to this report. Some of the outcomes were for non-human products such as Patagonian Toothfish, tuna and other finfish hydrolsate for fertiliser, aquaculture feed or pet food, composting products, low quality oil and extracted enzymes for potential addition to detergents. However there were also some high value food products produced including scampi roe, Blue Mussel stock, pearl meat adductor muscle and fish maw (swim bladders). In total, of the eleven industry requested case studies commenced three new products have been commercialised (tuna hydrolysate, scampi roe and pearl adductor muscle), and a number of other products are in market/commercial trials.

Project products

Report • 2017-07-01 • 224.48 KB
2013-711.40-A1-DLD.pdf

Summary

The project commenced with a literature review and then an audit of the seafood processing waste estimated to have been produced in 2013 in Australia. Likely to be the most accurate assessment undertaken thus far in this field, the audit estimated different forms and feasibility of access for the waste in Australia. The resulting volumes (whilst now historic but upgradeable), with limitations, now allow a more informed evaluation of potential economic opportunities from seafood processing waste.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.35 MB
2013-711.40-A2-DLD.pdf

Summary

The results demonstrated an improvement in the operation of the SAMPI facility in shifting from acid to enzyme hydrolysis. There was a slight difference in the compositional quality, the processing times were improved and the separation of the product on standing was reduced. The original objective to extract a high quality oil was not achieved due to the changes in the raw material, the company objectives and difficulties in up-scaling the laboratory results to commercial facilities.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.58 MB
2013-711.40-A3-DLD.pdf

Summary

The experimental work, whilst defining compositional analyses and putative final product process methodologies for the tuna bones and gill plates, has not resulted in any outcomes which can be commercially explored by the SAMPI company at this time.
There are other opportunities for value-adding from fish bones, such as extraction of collagen, collagen hydrolysates and hydroxyapatine, and production of gelatin, but these were considered beyond the scope of this project and will likely be put forward as potential student projects.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.91 MB
2013-711.40-A4-DLD.pdf

Summary

Investigate the feasibility of developing an on board hydrolysis waste treatment and discharge regime that meets current CCAMLR requirements for protecting seabirds and could potentially result in the development of alternative, economically viable by-product options.
 
Following the final trials it was decided to cease the project as there were a number of barriers to commercial feasibility. These included on board processing issues such as heating and ability to settle into different layers, the “grey” definition of “stickwater”, difficulties in using biofuels, and the EHA/DHA levels in the toothfish oil which would restrict viable commercial uses onshore.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 227.42 KB
2013-711.40-A5-DLD.pdf

Summary

The Patagonian Toothfish fishery in the Southern ocean produces up to 600 tonnes of fish waste each year. This waste presents a unique utilisation opportunity through the extraction of novel functional compounds from the viscera. There is significant evidence to suggest that the digestive enzymes from cold water fish species have lower optimal temperatures for activity than those of warm water species (Carginale, Trinchella, Capasso, Scudiero, & Parisi, 2004; Feller & Gerday, 1997; Genicot, Rentier-Delrue, Edwards, VanBeeumen, & Gerday, 1996; Somero, 1978). Psychrophilic enzymes have a number of potential uses in the food and other industries.
This project was commenced after the request for an enzyme sample from Proctor & Gamble. The hypothesised lower optimal temperature of the enzymes from Patagonian Toothfish may be highly effective in cold water laundry detergents. This project will attempt to extract and determine proteinase and lipase activity of Patagonian Toothfish digestive enzymes.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 2.26 MB
2013-711.40-A6-DLD.pdf

Summary

Objective: Determine options for potential utilisation of farmed Greenlip Abalone waste (gonads and stomach/ intestines with or without shells atttached) supplied by Southseas Abalone.
 
The project has resulted in production of a powdered abalone product that could potentially be used as a medicinal additive. However the cadmium levels require further investigation. The results have been provided to the industry partner for cost benefit and other considerations.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 974.88 KB
2013-711.40-A7-DLD.pdf

Summary

Biomax is a Singaporean company that has developed a novel enzymatic process for biological waste treatment. The dried product produced by the BIomax process can either be used as fertilizer or as a feed ingredient. The Biomax process had previously been tested on poultry and meat waste and the company were interested to see how waste fish would go in their system. Therefore Curtin worked with BIomax using fish waste as an ingredient in the process.
The Biomax process for fish is described below:
The fish waste material is loaded in a specialized digester along with BM1 enzymes at a ratio of 1ton waste to 1Kg enzymes. A dried waste material was also added (eg coconut coir, sawdust). The digester is a compact and enclosed reactor with sturdy internal mixer that ensures homogenous digestion of waste. BM1 enzymes are a specially formulated cocktail of naturally occurring microbes that break down complex organic compounds inside the waste into simpler organic matter at high speed. This waste/enzyme mix is then mixed, aerated and heated at 80oC within the digestor for the next 24 hours. After 24 hours, nutritious animal feed or fertilizer can be produced in powdery form to be discharged from a separate conveyor belt. This environment friendly zero-waste process does not produce any solid or liquid by products, only the dried product. This product is cooled for 2-3 days. The resulting product is shelf-stable at room temperature for at least 12 months.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 440.62 KB
2013-711.40-A8-DLD.pdf

Summary

Note: This report is available on request from the PI or FRDC - A summary of the project is available in the 2013-711.40 final report, as well as below
Kinkawooka Blue Mussels requested a case study to look at optimisation of Blue Mussel stock production from second grade Blue Mussels (Appendix 8). A multiple enzyme driven hydrolysis process was developed, and sensory assessment undertaken of the resulting Blue Mussel stock product (Figure 14). A pleasing product was developed at laboratory scale and was despatched for market feedback
Report • 2017-07-01 • 435.47 KB
2013-711.40-A9-DLD.pdf

Summary

Note: This report is available on request from the PI or FRDC - A summary of the project is available in the 2013-711.40 final report, as well as below
Westmore Seafoods requested an investigation into the development of a value-added product from scampi roe (Figure 15). Curing trials were undertaken, laboratory scale production protocols optimised for sensory quality. Shelf-life and composition analyses were undertaken on the product produced in the laboratory
Report • 2017-07-01 • 621.20 KB
2013-711.40-A10-DLD.pdf

Summary

To develop export and domestic markets, Paspaley Pearls have upgraded their commercial on board processing of the pearl adductor muscle from the Pinctada maxima pearl oyster following recommendations from these quality optimization trials. The upgraded on board process has a strong emphasis on maximizing product quality at harvest including the removal of excess moisture, chilled in an ice slurry vacuum packing and snap freezing product. The pearl meat processed with this method is called ‘harvested meat’. There are still some operations that process the pearl meat using the previous method, where there is less emphasis on quality and the meat is removed, chilled, washed and frozen in a commercial freezer in bags. The pearl meat processed using this method is termed ‘fished meat’.
There are three different grades for the pearl meat, based on the age of the shell ,each with slightly different characteristics making each size ideal for particular markets listed below:
• 1R (First Operation): 60 pieces/kg, best for restaurants. Sweeter and tenderer flesh generally harvested from younger pearl oysters. Sell for less if used for producing dried pearl meat.
• 2R (Second Operation): 45 pieces/kg, best for restaurants.
• 3R (Third Operation): 30 pieces/kg, best for producing dried pearl meat. Large and meat can be chewier.
The pearl meat currently harvested is sold to restaurants in the domestic market, with chefs serving them in raw sashimi style and cooked format. The company now has a focus to sell their product to premium food service establishments, both domestically and internationally. To export, the company must meet the requirements set by AQIS, FSANZ Food Standards Code and the regulatory requirements of the importing country. The product must have a best before date to be placed on the product before being exported. The company would also like to provide recommendations on best practice thawing and shelf-life of fresh and thawed product.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.44 MB
2013-711.40-A11-DLD.pdf

Summary

Paspaley Pearls were interested in commercialising production of the adductor muscle, a by-product of the pearl harvesting process. Samples of fresh and frozen pearl meat were subjected to different packaging and cold storage treatments and then analysed for sensory assessment and for shelf-life (Appendix 10 and 11) (Figure 16). Optimised procedures were then forwarded to the company, who subsequently purchased the appropriate shipboard processing equipment and developed protocols for addition to production documents for export and domestic markets. Such protocol are now being assessed by regulatory authorities with launch of the new products for the domestic and local markets expected in 2018.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.72 MB
2013-711.40-A12-DLD.pdf

Summary

The objective of the project is to develop a cost-effective method to sanitise and dry air bladders (fish maw) to provide a suitable and safe product for the Chinese and Hong Kong export markets.
 
The project partners, Dried Seafood Corporation, have demonstrated an Asian market interest in dried Barramundi air bladders. According to the Australian Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (1994), Barramundi is preferred for its premium grade fish maw and thus, the fish maw from Australian Barramundi can become a valuable export commodity.
Report • 2017-07-01 • 1.07 MB
2013-711.40-A13-DLD.pdf

Summary

Following discussions with the various industry partners it was decided that the next step was to dry swim bladders from a range of species and compare with commercially available products. 
Assess the quality parameters of dried whole farmed barramundi air bladders from different harvest areas in Australia.
Whole frozen farmed barramundi air bladders were supplied by Sealanes and Dried Seafood Corporation. The Sealanes air bladders were from an aquaculture facility whereas the Dried Seafood Corporation samples were from wild harvest.
Two trials were conducted, Trial 1 without manual internal cleaning, and Trial 2 with manual internal cleaning
Report • 2017-07-01 • 2.68 MB
2013-711.40-A14-DLD.pdf

Summary

small scale enzyme hydrolysis trials were completed on a range of species commonly sold in small retailers. These trials include Snapper, Barramundi and Atlantic Salmon. Subsequently a survey was completed with small seafood retailers about their waste (Appendix 14). The survey results indicated an interest in a solution to produce other products from waste on site, and hence a small scale hydrolysis unit, suitable for small retailers was designed by the research team and construction commissioned (see Figure 5). Whilst still being trialled, the unit has been used successfully to transform mixed product from a small retailer, and will also be used to produce enzyme hydrolysate for juvenile Barramundi feeding trials being conducted by PhD student Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddik. Trials with the hydrolysing unit will therefore be continued past the reporting stage of the project
Report • 2017-07-01 • 413.68 KB
2013-711.40-A15-DLD.pdf

Summary

This report presents two Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) for selected Australian seafood waste case studies.
Seafood waste streams offer commercial opportunities for value adding and coproduct development, in either seafood and or related industrial product markets. Dr Janet Howieson, on behalf of Curtin University, is working with the two commercial seafood processors to assess, develop and implement ways to better utilise and commercially monetise their respective seafood waste streams.
This project evaluates the two waste stream case studies (Paspaley Pearling Company, and FishTrade International) from a commercial cost-benefit viewpoint. The report summarises these cases and their commercial prospects. The report also presents a standard cost-benefit template to guide similar evaluations.

Related research

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PROJECT NUMBER • 2019-215
PROJECT STATUS:
CURRENT

Seventh National Abalone Convention 2019

1. To host a successful convention that showcases recent abalone related R&D as well addresses the theme of the Convention which was "Rebuilding our Resource"
ORGANISATION:
Abalone Council Australia Ltd (ACA)
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