Published: 29 June 2021 Updated: 26 July 2021
Aboriginal ‘Aboriginal’ in Latin means ‘from the beginning.’ It is used because there is no Aboriginal word that refers to all Aboriginal people in Australia.
Alumni Ex-employees of the FRDC deemed to be alumni by the Executive Director.
Annual Cycle The FRDC’s annual cycle of activities determined by the PIRD Act and incorporated into QMS documentation.
Annual Operating Plan (AOP) The FRDC’s AOP is prepared in accordance with the PIRD Act and submitted to the Minister for approval by 1st May annually. It specifies the coming financial year’s planned outcomes, outputs and inputs. Strategies and key performance indicators are also specified. The document gives effect to the RD&E plan by seeking to achieve, in the best way possible, the planned outcomes of the RD&E programs over the next 12 month period
Annual Report The FRDC’s Annual Report which is tabled in Parliament.
Anti-virus signatures Anti-virus signatures’ are used to identify computer viruses. ‘Signature-based’ virus detection involves searching for known patterns of data within executable code. (Note that it is possible for a computer to be infected with new malware for which no signature is yet known.)
ANZLIC - The Spatial Information Council ANZLIC has developed nationally agreed policies and guidelines aimed at achieving ‘best practice’ in spatial data management. FRDC’s data policy is based on these general principles.
Application An application is a formal request, by an organisation or individual, for FRDC funding. Applications are made in writing or by an electronic medium in a prescribed format using the online FishNet system.
Approval date - standards development This is the date on which the SDO approves the document for publishing. For Australian Standards it is the date on which the document is approved by the FRDC board.
Area of concern Area of the system for which the FRDC is required to investigate potential nonconformity.
Asymmetric Cryptosystem A method of encryption in which two different keys are used: one for encrypting and one for decrypting the data (e.g., public-key encryption).

A measure of its prospective net benefits, financial and non-financial, to the fishing industry and the community based on an applications:

  • relevance to the FRDC RD&E theme
  • support from stakeholders
  • likelihood of adoption
  • value for money
  • level of potential impact
  • contribution to new knowledge
  • linkages and collaboration
  • consequences of not undertaking research
Australian Spatial Data Directory (ASDD) The ASDD is a searchable repository of metadata records held across Australia. It does not allow direct access to data. Listing metadata on the ASDD is free.
Authorsed Officer - PID The Manager Corporate Services [s59(3)(c) PID Act]
Bank Reconciliation A bank reconciliation is the process of reconciling the bank statement balance to the balance of the bank general ledger.
Beneficiary – development award The individual directly benefiting from a development award
Biannual Twice a year
Biennial Every two years
Blue sky application Applications which focus on basic research or research with no immediate application.
BlueNet An initiative that aims to integrate university held marine data into the Australian Ocean Data Centre Joint Facility (AODCJF) network (in particular, the Marine Catalogue).
Calendar A chart or series of pages showing the days, weeks, and months of a particular year, or giving particular seasonal information.

The FRDC’s calendar of events is housed inside a procedure and lists all known regular events by month. This document is reviewed at staff meetings and updated regularly.

CIR in Production List containing all Continual Improvement Requests that have been completed and moved into Production.
CIR's in Testing Phase List where all Continual Improvement Requests sit during the testing phase.
Comcover Comcover is the Australian Government's general insurance fund and provides insurance and risk management services to Australian Government Departments and agencies.
Comcover Risk Management Benchmarking program A program to benchmark effectiveness in establishing a process for managing risk through Comcover’s Risk Management and Insurance Services. The aim of the benchmarking program is to review and assess the risk management framework, practices and systems of a group of organisations drawn from Comcover’s member/client base, and to benchmark each within the member peer group. The program also entitles the agency to a premium discount off the insurance on completion.
Coming events FRDC’s corporate calendar of events (accessed through Microsoft Office outlook).
Commercial bill An unsecured, short-term debt instrument issued by a corporation, typically for the financing of accounts receivable, inventories and meeting short-term liabilities. Maturities on commercial paper rarely range any longer than 270 days. The debt is usually issued at a discount, reflecting prevailing market interest rates
Commercialisation Commercialisation refers to a subset of technology transfer activities which involve a more direct transfer of technology into use by some commercial arrangement; typically a licence, assignment or creation of a new firm or commercial activity.
Community Communities are groups of people that may or may not be spatially connected, but who share common interests, concerns or identities. Communities can be local, national or international, with specific or broad interests.
Competitive Round The competitive round is a transparent and competitive process to encourage a broad range of researchers and proposals for funding. It has the additional benefit of generating innovative ideas for fisheries and aquaculture science, and “blue sky” research.
Complaint Anecdotal or formal feedback received from a stakeholder complaining that a service is, or has been delivered in an unsatisfactory manner. Complaints may relate to administrative errors, product non-conformance, and dissatisfaction with an FRDC product or about the behaviour or performance of an FRDC employee. The debate or questioning of FRDC funding decisions are not considered complaints.
Complaint Anecdotal or formal feedback received from a stakeholder complaining that a service is, or has been delivered in an unsatisfactory manner.

Complaints may relate to administrative errors, product non-conformance, and dissatisfaction with an FRDC product or about the behaviour or performance of an FRDC employee. The debate or questioning of FRDC funding decision are not considered complaints.

Compliment to express admiration of; congratulate or commend
Confidentiality A set of rules that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
Consensus General agreement, characterized by the absence of sustained opposition to substantial issues by any important part of the concerned interests and by a process that involves seeking to take into account the views of all parties concerned and to reconcile any conflicting arguments.

NOTE : Consensus need not imply unanimity.
Ref - ISO/IEC Guide 2

Consensus agreement When all of the major interests involved with the subject of the Standard have collectively accepted the content of the document and have voted affirmatively. This normally implies a unanimous affirmative vote, but occasionally it may be achieved where there are one or more outstanding negative votes.
  1. a minimum 67 percent of those eligible to vote have voted affirmatively; and
  2. a minimum 80 percent of votes received are affirmative; and
  3. no major interest involved with the subject of the Standard has collectively maintained a negative vote.

The outcome of the risk or opportunity being realised. The consequences of a:

  • negative impact (threat) may include the inability to meet stakeholder and customer expectations, financial loss, organisational or political embarrassment, operational disruption and litigation.
  • positive impact (opportunity) may include creating opportunities to introduce new technology, develop a strategic alliance, introduce new business model, achieve objectives, investing in new activities that could lead to increased income.
Consumer Individual member of the general public, or consumer organizations, purchasing or using property, products or services for private purposes.
Continual Improvement An ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once.

Ongoing incremental improvements to FRDC’s policies and processes to ensure best outcomes are achieved. This is done through the FRDC QMS.

Continual Improvement Site The site on NEMO where all FRDC non-conformance, area of concern, opportunity for improvement (inlcuding IT system improvement) and stakeholder feedback is recorded and actioned.
Continual Improvement System The system used by FRDC to manage opportunity for improvement, area of concern, non-conformance and stakeholder feedback

An agreement between the FRDC and a supplier. Agreements may be verbal or documented. A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. It must contain at least one promise (ie a commitment or offer) by an offer and accepted by an offeree to do something in the future. In common law, there are three key elements to the creation of a contract:

  • offer and acceptance
  • consideration
  • an intention to create legal relations.

In civil law systems the concept of consideration is not central.

Contractor/consultant Any non-staff member paid to perform tasks on behalf of the FRDC.
Control risk

The risk that a system of policies, procedures and system checks developed by management will fail to prevent or detect a fraud risk exposure. Control risk is divided into two elements.


  • effective the controls are in countering fraud
  • well the controls are implemented
Coordination program Body formed by FRDC to manage a suite of programs/projects over a specified time period. A coordination program does not have an allocated budget and applications addressing their priorities or plan are competing with other applications submitted through the annual competitive round and TRF rounds.
Corporate governance The systems and processes used by an organisation to direct and control its operations, affairs and activities to ensure the objectives of the organisation are met.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
CSR is a business model that helps a company be socially accountable to itself, its stakeholders and the public.
Corrective action Remedial action taken to eliminate the cause of an existing non-conformance or other undesirable situation, to prevent recurrence to improve the QMS and FRDC’s outcomes to its stakeholders.
Counterparty risk The risk that a counterparty to a financial transaction will default on its obligations to the FRDC.
Creditor A creditor is a company or individual who is contracted to supply materials or services to the FRDC and to whom payments are made for these contracted activities.
Crisis A situation that may impact adversely on the reputation of the FRDC or requires urgent and ongoing communication with key FRDC stakeholders or the media.
Cross team quality audit A cross team audit is a review of (4 – 5 at a time) policies, procedures or work guides. Employees work in cross team units to review several documents and provide feedback. The Quality Manager then updates the documents in consultation with the relevant section. These documents are then signed off by the ED.
Data All information stored within FRDC's ICT systems including but not limited to emails, documents, analyses, animations and models in electronic format (e.g. databases and spreadsheets, spatial layers), photographs, research.
Data Management Covers a broad range of activities and concepts including data ownership, data documentation (metadata), data quality, data custodianship, data access and dissemination, and data security.
Delegated officer An employee or director who is delegated to sign off payments in their area of responsibility and under prescribed limits.

A delegation is the act or instrument by which the board either

(a) appoints a person as representative of the board; or
(b) commits powers of the board to another as agent

The passing down of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from the board to an employee; or from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.

Deliberative vote A deliberative vote is a vote given to a person because they are a member of the SRB.

The term is usually applied to the chair of the meeting to draw distinction between the vote they get as an SRB member and the casting vote they may get as the presiding person.

SRB chairs do not get casting votes.

Deliverable A prescribed significant progress point in a project. Each deliverable will require a report describing what has been achieved, or not, and allows the reviewer to measure the progress of the project
De-militarized Zone (DMZ) A network segment external to the corporate production network.
Development award FRDC, through an annual competitive round, makes funds available to assist a seafood industry participant or participants to undertake professional development activities to benefit Australian fisheries. Development awards may be used for travel assistance, conference attendance, training courses or other forms of professional development. Budget approval for development award funding is through the people development AOP. Funds are generally $10,000 or less.
Development award – beneficiary The individual undertaking the activities described in a development award deed of agreement (ie directly benefiting from the development award).
Development award deed of agreement The FRDC agreement for development award recipients and beneficiaries (hosted and individual).
Diffie-Hellman key exchange (D-H) A cryptographic protocol that allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel
Director Part-time office holder appointed by the Minister under section 7 of the PIRD Act and under terms and conditions determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.
Disclosurable conduct

Refer s26 and s29 PID Act
Conduct that:

  • contravenes a law (including foreign country)
  • is corrupt
  • perverts the course of justice
  • results in wastage of public funds or property
  • is an abuse of public trust
  • unreasonably endangers health and safety or endangers the environment
  • is misconduct relating to scientific research, analysis or advice
  • is maladministration, (eg unjust, oppressive or negligent conduct)
  • includes conduct that goes to disciplinary action against an official

Disclosable conduct does not cover:

  • to a disagreement with government policy, action or expenditure (s31 PID Act)
  • Parliamentarians - actions of Ministers, Speaker of House of Representatives and President of Senate (s31)
  • conduct of Courts or Tribunals (unless administrative) (s32)
  • proper activities of intelligence agencies (s33)
Distribution of Wealth The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society. It shows one aspect of economic inequality or economic heterogeneity.
Due process A course of formal proceedings carried out regularly and in accordance with the established FRDC standards development policy and procedures
Early start application An application is submitted for consideration within the funding round, but that requires a start date earlier than normal processing would provide.
Editorial Consultant

An editorial consultant is a person contracted to provide assistance with the:

- compilation of information
- drafting and refinement of raw information
- identification of missing information
- consistency check – project titles

EFT payment An electronic funds transfer payment made directly into a creditor’s bank account.
Email Electronic mail. The FRDC’s corporate email address is and is administered by the Office Administrator. All employees have individual email addresses.
Employee A person employed by the FRDC (excluding directors). An employee is a person who contributes labour and expertise and is hired to do a specific ‘job’ in a defined relationship between an individual and the FRDC, as described in the FRDC’s position description for the job.

An employee is an Officer (refer definition of Officer). For the purposes of the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) policy FRDC employees are considered “Workers” (refer defintion of Worker)

Environment (contextual)


Total environment encompasses the:

  • Behavioural, social, natural and physical environment
  • Social, natural and physical environment
  • Natural and physical environment
  • Physical environment
Equity Equity is assets less liabilities.
Ethics Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.
Evaluation The process of reviewing an application with a view to approving or rejecting the application.
Executive Editor The FRDC Communications Manager is the Executive Editor and is responsible to the FRDC Executive Director for the content and timing of FISH. At the Communications Manager’s discretion, the FRDC Communications Officer who is also the Assistant Editor may act as Executive Editor.
Executive employee Any employee with a remuneration package that is required to be reported in the Annual Report (currently $130K plus pa).
Express post Refers to Australia Post’s service for fast delivery of mail in colour coded envelopes.
Expression of Interest (EOI) This application process focuses on “attractiveness” rather than “feasibility”, and is designed to minimise the workload for both applicants and their FRAB sponsors.

The communication of knowledge or technology to the industry, stakeholders and the community. Activities that lead to the adoption of research results to assist stakeholders to improve fishing and aquaculture profitability; environmental and stock performance; or to establish new fishing and aquaculture activities through the:

  • organised communication of research and information
  • purposeful transfer of skills

Research, information and skills may include financial, management, and/or technical knowledge.

External audit An external audit is a review by a qualified external auditor undertaken at various intervals during the FRDC's business life-cycle. Examples of FRDC external audits include ISO quality audits and financial record audits.
Feasibility A measure of likelihood of success such as appropriate methodology and resources to undertake the activity and of results leading to technology transfer and/or commercialisation
Feedback Information received from an FRDC stakeholder, relating to the delivery of FRDC products or services.
Feedback - anecdotal Verbal, unrecorded information received from an FRDC stakeholder, relating to the delivery of FRDC products or services.
Feedback - formal Written or recorded feedback received from an FRDC stakeholder, relating to the delivery of FRDC products and services. This may include letters, e-mails, faxes or articles appearing in the media.
Final report A report submitted to the FRDC describing the inputs, outputs and expected ‘on the ground’ outcomes of a completed FRDC funded RD&E project. Reports are supplied in either hard-copy or electronic form.
Finance, Audit and Risk Management Committee (FARM) A sub-committee of the FRDC board responsible for monitoring FRDC’s financial performance and providing recommendations to the board with respect to financial and risk management issues.
FINO The FRDC’s management information system developed on top of Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2013 and GP.

FINO integrates key technical, financial and administrative data associated with applications, projects under management and administration to assist in the FRDC’s decision-making process. It incorporates historic and current data.

FISH FISH is the FRDC’s news magazine. It is produced quarterly in March, June, September and December of each year.
Fisheries Research Advisory Bodies (FRABs) Expertise based bodies in each Australian fisheries jurisdiction that filter, value add and provide advice to the FRDC on applications- now RACs.
Fishing Industry Fisheries, fishing and the fishing industry means wild catch commercial, recreational, indigenous and aquaculture, including the management of the resource
FishNet The FRDC’s online application system.
Flow of Benefits (FOB) FOB is an estimate of the distribution of project costs across jurisdictions expressed as a percentage of the total benefit. It may also be applied to fisheries, regions, and/or other beneficiaries of the research. The FOB is initially estimated by the applicant and, if need be, amended by the FRAB.

This material is official information that, if compromised, could cause limited damage to the Australian Government, commercial entities or members of the public, for example:

  • cause substantial distress to individuals or private entities
  • cause financial loss or loss of earning potential to, or facilitate improper gain or advantage for, individuals or private entities
  • prejudice the investigation or facilitate the commission of a crime
  • breach proper undertakings to maintain the confidence of information provided by third parties
  • impede the effective development or operation of government policies
  • breach statutory restrictions on disclosure of information;
  • disadvantage the Australian Government in commercial or policy negotiations with others undermine the proper management of the public sector and its operations

The PGPA Act Fraud Rule defines fraud as “Dishonestly obtaining a benefit, or causing a loss, by deception or other means.” Fraud against the FRDC may include but is not limited to:

  • theft
  • FRDC project investments
  • entitlements (e.g. expenses, leave, travel, or attendance records)
  • facilities (e.g. unauthorised use of corporate credit cards or information technology and telecommunication systems)
  • accounting fraud (e.g. false invoices, misappropriation)
  • Unlawful use of, or unlawful obtaining of, property, equipment, material or services
  • causing a loss, or avoiding and/or creating a liability
  • providing false or misleading information to the FRDC, or failing to provide information when there is an obligation to do so
  • misuse of FRDC assets, equipment or facilities
  • making, or using, false, forged or falsified documents
  • wrongfully using FRDC information or intellectual property.

A benefit is not restricted to a monetary or material benefit, and may be tangible or intangible, including the unauthorised provision of access to, or disclosure of, information. A benefit may also be obtained by a third party rather than, or in addition to, the perpetrator of the fraud.

FRDC board The FRDC is governed by a board of directors whose expertise is prescribed by the PIRD Act. The board is responsible to the Minister and the Assistant Minster and, through them, to the Parliament.
FRDC Information Technology Security Advisor The employee who assists the Executive Director, in his role as the security executive within the PSM, by being responsible for the day to day performance of the security of the information and communications systems within the FRDC. The Business Development Manager has this role.
FRDC management All staff who manage the functions of the FRDC, including the Executive Director.
FRDC reference folder This is a hard copy folder provided to the Minister/Parliamentary Secretary and FRDC’s representative organisations that contains key FRDC documentation.
FRDC Security Advisor The employee who assists the Executive Director, in his role as the security executive within the PSM, by being responsible for the day to day performance of protective security matters within the FRDC. The Business Development Manager has this role.
FRDC websites Internet domains owned and managed by the FRDC
Full application The complete version of an application, usually developed from an EOI which contains more detailed information of the proposed activity.
Funding agreement Agreement between Commonwealth of Australia represented by the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment and FRDC. The Funding Agreement defines the operating principles for the partnership.
General interest Those with a demonstrated interest and relevant expertise that are not associated with the production, distribution, direct use, or regulation of the product(s), material(s) or service(s).

NOTE : May include technical or professional associations and trade unions.

Hazard A hazard is a situation or thing that has the potential to harm a person. Hazards at work may include: noisy machinery, a moving forklift, chemicals, electricity, working at heights, a repetitive job, bullying and violence at the workplace
Health and Safety (WHS) representative Employee nominated as the main point of contact regarding workplace health and safety matters, assisting with managers, acting as a communication point for staff and provide input on WHS issues. Currently the Manager Corporate Services.
Host organisation/recipient Where a development award is managed by an organisation other than the FRDC on behalf of the beneficiary, this organisation is known as the Host and this organisation is the recipient of the Award.
Host/custodian The organization or group responsible for looking after a data set in the long term, including ensuring it is accessible, secure, and up to date.
Household member A household member is any person who lives with the employee; they don’t need to be a relative.
Hummingbird The FRDC’s old records and document management system in place until 2009 when FRDC moved to the use of Nemo.
ICT facilities

ICT facilities include, but are not limited to:

  • Telephones
  • Mobile Phones
  • Desktop Computers
  • Laptops
  • Tablets
  • Printers
  • Data Projectors
  • USB Devices
  • Email
  • Fixed or Wireless Internet including Wireless Devices
  • Software
  • Server hardware
Immediate family

The definition of an immediate family member includes:

  • spouse
  • de facto partner
  • child
  • parent
  • grandparent
  • grandchild
  • sibling, or
  • child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of the employee's spouse or de facto partner

This definition includes step-relations, for example step-parents and step-children. The employee does not need to live with their immediate family member for them to meet the definition.

Implementation date This is the date that a standard becomes effective, where that date differs from the publication date. For example, when there is a need to provide a period of grace to allow products and practices to be modified or upgraded. Occasionally, legislation or certification programs may also require a later date of implementation for a standard than its publication date.
Indigenous Australian The legal definition provided by the Federal Court declares Indigenous Australian peoples are people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent, who identify as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and are accepted as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person in the community in which they live, or have lived.
Indigenous Reference Group (IRG)

A group of Indigenous Australians established by the FRDC in 2012. It is made up of members nominated from Indigenous Australian communities. With respect to the facilitation of Australian fisheries and aquaculture RD&E the IRG:

  • acts as a research coordination program
  • assists the FRDC in engaging with Indigenous Australian communities
Industry partner An industry sector who has entered into a contractual relationship with FRDC for the purposes of research, development or extension
Industry Partnership Agreement (IPA) An agreement between the FRDC and a sector body to manage a suite of sectoral projects over a specified time period. IPAs have a budget allocation, based on forecast contributions (at least 0.25% GVP ), FRDC “matching” contributions, less an 8% FRDC service fee.
Inherent risk The level of fraud risk which would exist in the absence of any internal controls (this is also known as a ‘green fields’ assessment of risk).
Injury An adverse impact on an employee’s physical or psychological health.
Intellectual property (IP)

IP at its broadest can be defined as any tangible creation of the mind but is typically defined more narrowly to mean those ideas and inventions which are capable of being protected by one or more of the statutory IP protection regimes or through other legal means. Intellectual or industrial property rights are defined in Article 2 of the Convention Establishing the World Technology Organisation of July 1967, and include:

  • inventions, technology and discoveries and rights arising there from including the right to apply for letters patent, patents, petty patents, utility models and plant variety rights;
  • copyrights in works and subject matter other than works including copyright and other rights to or arising from computer programs and circuit or semi-conductor designs;
  • designs for the shape, pattern or ornamentation of goods or articles including designs which are or may be registered as industrial designs;
  • trademarks, business names and goodwill arising from names or other Intellectual Property or products; and
  • confidential information.

Primary Industries Standing Committee (PISC) agreed an intellectual property management framework for the Australian Government in 2011 (refer 6.10 this policy)

Interest rate risk The potential for movements in interest rates to result in significantly reduced net interest income.
Interested party Any of the people or organisations who may be affected by the potential standards development activity, or have the potential to be affected in the future
Internal audit An internal audit is a review by FRDC employees and the Quality Manager to review aspects of the QMS and provide feedback with a view to continuous improvement.
IT Developer/ Manager FRDC officer with responsibility for IT system management and improvements
Lessee The building owner
Likelihood The chance of something happening - ‘extent to which an event is likely to occur’
Liquidity risk Liquidity risk typically results from a mismatch between the maturity dates of assets and liabilities and/or unanticipated cash flows. An unforeseen event or miscalculation in the required liquidity level will result, in the worst case, in the inability to meet financial or operational requirements, in excessive borrowing costs or in substantially reduced investment income as a result of not being able to meet these requirements in an organised manner.
Long term Always longer than 12 months, but generally longer than 5 years.
Long term ratings AAA The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.

AA The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.

A The obligor exhibits adequate protection parameters. Adverse economic conditions or changing conditions may lead to the obligor having a weaker capacity to meet the financial commitment on the obligation.

Major Security Incident

A deliberate action that leads or could lead to the loss, damage, corruption or disclosure of official resources. A major security incident may involve negligence, reckless behaviour or intent to harm the Australian Government or an officer of the Australian Government or may be a Minor Security incident involving material classified SECRET and above.

Examples include:

  • Loss or suspected compromise of material or tampering with security containers
  • Actual or suspected hacking into any information and communication technology system
  • Compromise of keys to security locks or combination settings
  • Unauthorised disclosure of classified official information
  • Detailed examples are contained within Part G Guidelines on Security Incidents and Investigations of the PSM
Management Management refers to employees of the FRDC who hold the position of Managing Director and the General Managers - Business, Communications and Engagement, ICT, Research and Investment, and Strategy and Innovation.
Management plan - social media FRDC’s plan to manage the timing and placement of on line postings for all its social media communications
Managing Director FRDC’s Managing Director (MD)
Managing Director's report The FRDC Managing Director’s weekly report to the board.
Managing Editor - FISH The role of Managing Editor is provided by an external supplier, its employees and agents, appointed to work with the Communications Officer to supply development of story lists, research and writing, photography and illustration, sub-editing, design and layout, proof-reading, making corrections and supply of print-ready files to the printer.
Manual handling Any activity requiring the use of force by a person to lift, push, pull or otherwise move or restrain any animate or inanimate object.
Marine catalogue A virtual repository of marine data and metadata held by contributing hosts.
Media releases

Media releases relating to upcoming FRDC events or announcements such as:

  • FRDC investment decisions
  • upcoming board meetings
  • FRDC corporate or related activities
Metadata A description of a dataset with details such as how the dataset was collected, by whom, its quality, and access restrictions. Metadata created for FRDC will adhere to ANZLIC standards.
Microsoft Dynamics GP Microsoft Dynamics GP (formerly Great Plains) is a financial accounting system for small to mid-sized businesses. Microsoft Dynamics GP has applications for financial management, human resources management, manufacturing planning, supply chain management, field service, business intelligence, collaboration, compliance, and IT management.
Milestone A prescribed activity in a project. Each milestone will have a report describing what has been achieved, or not, and allows the reviewer to measure the progress of the project.
Minor Security Incident (also referred to as a 'security breach')

An accidental or unintentional failure to observe the requirements for handling official resources involving material security classified up to an including CONFIDENTIAL or PROTECTED.
Examples include:

  • Access passes or identification documents lost or left insecure
  • Security classified material (including IN-CONFIDENCE) left in UNCLASSIFIED waste bins
  • Security classified material up CONFIDENTIAL or PROTECTED (including IN-CONFIDENCE) not properly secured or stored
  • Detailed examples are contained within Part G Guidelines on Security Incidents and Investigations of the PSM
Mitigation Any change that reduces the risk to the FRDC or transfers it to another entity (eg insurance policies).
National RD&E Strategy The National Fishing and Aquaculture Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) Strategy establishes the future direction to improve the focus, efficiency and effectiveness of RD&E to support Australia’s fishing and aquaculture industry. It is one component of the National Primary Industries Research, Development and Extension Framework and was endorsed by Ministers at Primary Industries ministerial Council (PIMC) 23rd April 2010. The FRDC’s RD&E Plan is developed and monitored within this over-arching national framework.
Need to Know principle That an employee should only have access to information that he/she needs to do his/her job.
Need to Share principle Making information available to Australian Government personnel, organisations and individuals who need it to do their jobs, or support Australian Government programs.
Nemo The FRDC’s document and records management system based on Microsoft SharePoint Online
Net benefit The value or benefit of a standard to the Australian community that exceeds the costs likely to be imposed on suppliers, users and other parties in the community as a result of its development and implementation.
Non-conformance A deficiency in a product, process activity or documentation in terms of incorrect characteristics, performance requirements, standards or measurements which are outside specified criteria and does not lead to an acceptable outcome.
Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS) A collective term for a range of conditions characterised by discomfort or persistent pain in muscles and soft tissue with or without visible symptoms.
Oceans portal A web-based search interface that allows discovery of data registered on the Marine Catalogue.
Officer A person who makes, or participates in making decisions that affect the whole or a substantial part of a business or undertaking
Official information All information generated or received by the FRDC or its contractors
Official information that is NOT intended for public release

That information which could result in harm or disadvantage to the nation, the public interest, the Government, private entities or individuals through unauthorised compromise or misuse.
Official information not intended for public release is either:

  • unclassified official information or
  • classified official information
Operational requirements


  • the impact of arrangements on FRDC’s operating capacity
  • whether the position has a significant role in the annual cycle that may be affected by arrangements
  • the impact any arrangements may have on other team members
  • the needs of the employee
Operational risks

Risks arising from the general operations of the FRDC treasury function which may involve an economic loss and include:

  • fraud and theft
  • unauthorised use of financial instruments and other breaches of delegated authority
  • failure to settle financial transactions on time
  • loss due to poor transaction documentation; and
  • inadequate information systems
Opportunity for Improvement (OFI) A documented statement, which may identify areas for improvement however shall not make specific recommendation(s).

“OFI’s”, or opportunities for improvement - suggestions, usually meant to help you improve your quality system.

Other Persons Any person other than a worker or officer that can be affected by work undertaken by the PCBU. eg. third parties
Out of cycle application An application submitted for consideration outside of the competitive round cycle.
Out of session application An application that is considered by the board between board meetings.
Pentennial Every five years
People Development People Development refers to FRDC investment to build capacity and capability in the Fishing and Aquaculture sectors.
Performance appraisal development review (PAD) The annual review of employee performance performed by the Chair for the Executive Director; and by the Executive Director for all other employees
PGPA Act The Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 is mainly about the governance, performance and accountability of Commonwealth entities
PIERD Act Primary Industries and Energy Research and Development Act 1989 - An Act to provide for the undertaking of research and development relating to primary industries, energy and natural resources, and for related purposes- This act has now been replaced by the PIRD Act.
PIRD Act Primary Industries Research and Development Act 1989 - An Act to provide for the undertaking of research and development relating to primary industries and natural resources, and for related purposes

Policies describe agreed principles of action or rules of conduct and will be developed and authorised where there is a need for:

  • a clear description of behavioural boundaries
  • consistency of approach
Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS) The PBS describes the allocation of funding under the FRDC’s structure to provide the means for it to meet its prescribed outcomes, and their anticipated future performance. The primary purpose of the PBS is to inform the Parliament of the basis for proposed Budget outlays, with particular emphasis on the proposed provisions in Appropriation Bills (1 and 2). This document is drafted to be consistent with the AOP and is prepared annually. It is consolidated, together with the statements of other rural Research and Development Corporations, by the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF). Unlike the RD&E Plan and AOP, it is tabled in the Commonwealth Parliament.
Pre-paid sponsorship Sponsorship paid to a conference organiser such that if the conference has sufficient funds to re-pay that sponsorship it does so; but if it does not, the shortfall is a sponsorship cost.
Preventive action Action taken to detect analyse and eliminate the cause of a potential non-conformance, through the initiation of changes to processes and related documentation.
Principal investigator The project leader on an application for RD&E funding from FRDC
Principal Officer The Executive Director (refer s73 PID Act)
Probity The evidence of ethical behaviour, and can be defined as complete and confirmed integrity, uprightness and honesty in a particular process.
Procedure A procedure describes a process or method by which we undertake an action. It will specify the purpose and process of a defined activity and by whom it will be undertaken (either position or function). A procedure describes how, when, where and why an activity is carried out
Process A process is a systematic series of actions directed to fulfil a prescribed purpose. It will be documented as one or more procedures or work guides.
Procurement The contracting for, and the acquisition of, goods and services.
Procurement manager FRDC employee tasked with working on a particular procurement project.
Producer Those who are predominantly involved in production (i.e., manufacture), promotion, retailing, importing or distribution of the subject product(s), material(s) or service(s).

Services and outputs associated with planning, investing in, and managing research and development, and facilitating the dissemination, adoption and commercialisation of those results. Products include:

  • services and advice
  • final (project) reports
  • intellectual property
  • FISH News and other media
  • web site
  • publications
  • CDs
  • Videos
  • Brochures
  • DVDs
  • Training manuals
  • Codes of conduct
Program The FRDC’s programs are based on the Objects of the PIRD Act. Refer the latest FRDC R&D Plan for detail.
Project A project is an FRDC funded RD&E activity. An approved application becomes a project once the project agreement has been signed by delegates of both the FRDC and the research provider.
Project Manager the person in overall charge of the planning and execution of a particular project
Project payment A project payment is a payment made to an FRDC funded RD&E activity once an application has been approved and agreements exchanged.
Project related product An output from a project for the purpose of disseminating information from that project to relevant beneficiaries. The'output' is produced in a form that is most appropriate for its target audience eg publication, CD, video, brochure, training manual, etc

The ‘output’ is not limited to final results of a project and can relate to an individual component of the research results (a by-product).

Proprietary encryption An algorithm that has not been made public and/or has not withstood public scrutiny. The developer of the algorithm could be a vendor, an individual, or the government.
Public Officer - PID

Refer s69 of the PID Act.

  • Australian Government public servants
  • parliamentary service employees
  • members of the Defence Force
  • staff and directors of Commonwealth companies
  • statutory office holders
  • staff of Commonwealth contracted service providers
  • persons taken to be public officials (s70)
  • can be anonymous (s28)
Public Service Manual (PSM) A manual detailing guidelines for officers and agencies employed under the Commonwealth Public Service Act
Publication Publications are print, electronic and other media produced by FRDC or as an ‘output’ of a FRDC funded project. Publications do not include final reports.
Publication – project related Publications include print, electronic and other media produced by FRDC or as an ‘output’ of an FRDC funded project. The ‘output’ can be produced in various formats eg publication/item, DVD, CD, video, brochure, cassette, or training manual. The ‘output’ is neither limited to the results of one project, nor does it need to cover all the results of any one project. Publications do not include final reports.
Publication -corporate A corporate publication includes print, electronic and other media produced by FRDC for strategic, communication or corporate governance requirements. These include the FRDC Annual Report, RD&E Plan and FISH magazine. Procedures exist for the preparation of each of these publications.
Publication date - SDO This is the date that the standard becomes publicly available. It is also the date on which the standard comes into effect.
Publish To make data available for visualization or download via the internet
Published - QMS A procedure is published by the Quality Manager when it ready for formal authorisation by the Executive Director (ED). The version number will change from being a 0.1 to a 1.0 (for example) when the document is published in Nemo and recorded in relevant index policy/procedure lists.
Publishing licence agreement - SDO A legal agreement between Standards Australia and SAI Global whereby SA grants an exclusive worldwide licence to SAIG to publish, sell and distribute documents carrying the trademark ‘Australian Standard®’. In return, SAIG pays a royalty to SA for each document sold.

NOTE : With respect to accredited SDOs, SA directs that SAIG pay any royalties direct to the SDO.

Quality Management System The FRDC quality management system (QMS) consists of its organisational structure, processes, documentation (policies, procedures and work guides) and resources used to implement and meet quality objectives to achieve the requirements of its stakeholders
Quality Manager The Quality Manager is the person who is allocated the tasks of facilitating and controlling the documentation relating to FRDC’s QMS.
R&D or RD&E Plan

The FRDC Research and Development Plan (the Plan) is the FRDC’s principal planning document and is prepared with regard to Ministerial directions and government policy. It is finalised following consultation with stakeholders from government, industry and, in particular, the FRDC’s representative organisations.
It is the principal source of information about the FRDC’s future direction and:

  • describes the FRDC
  • defines the FRDC’s business environment
  • lays down, against the business environment, the FRDC’s planned outcomes and priorities for the planning period
  • outlines the strategies that the FRDC intends to adopt to achieve those outcomes
  • covers a period of five years starting at the end the preceding RD&E or R&D Plan
  • is approved by the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry and is reviewed annually
Reconciliation There is no one definition. Reconciliation is about building better relationships between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the wider Australian community for the benefit of all Australians. It is about demonstrating respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander heritage and valuing justice and equity.
Record Records are evidence of business conducted by an organisation. Any reference to a record in this context refers to records in any format as defined in the Archives Act 1983.
Record management

A record documents the FRDC’s business activities; and can be a range of things, including a map, written report, email, film, photograph or sound recording. Records detailing the FRDC’s activities are recorded in a way that supports the FRDC’s business needs. Records can either be created as part of a business process, such as writing a letter or email, or as a deliberate action after the event, such as writing minutes or creating a note for file. Following their creation, records are captured in the FRDC’s records management system to ensure that records:

  • can be proven to be genuine
  • are accurate and can be trusted
  • are complete and unaltered
  • are secure from unauthorised access, alteration and deletion
  • can be found when needed
  • are related to other relevant records

Knowing what records to create involves:

  • understanding the requirements of legislation and the FRDC’s business including its policies, procedures and directives
  • using work process analysis to identify what records are needed to document business or work processes. (Refer the Australian Standard AS 5090 – 2003, Work process analysis for recordkeeping)
  • assessing risks associated with not creating records
Regulator Any federal, state, municipal or other government body responsible for regulating the acceptability, sale or use of the subject products, materials or services and those bodies that enforce these rules and regulations.
Remuneration Committee Remuneration committee of the Board
Research Advisory Committee (RAC) Expertise based bodies in each Australian fisheries jurisdiction that filter, value add and provide advice to the FRDC on applications. RACs have FRDC budget allocations as do Industry Partnership Agreements (IPAs).
Research, Development and Extension (RD&E)

Systematic experimentation and analysis in any field of science, technology or economics (including the study of the social or environmental consequences of the adoption of new technology) carried out with the object of:

a) acquiring knowledge that may be of use in obtaining or furthering an objective of that primary industry or class, including knowledge that may be of use for the purpose of improving any aspect of the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of goods that are the produce, or that are derived from the produce, of that primary industry or class; or

b) applying such knowledge for the purpose of attaining or furthering such an objective (PIRD Act Section 4)

Residual risk The inherent risk which remains once the likelihood and consequence of the risk has been considered after taking into consideration the key controls, determined using the risk matrix table.
Residual risk evaluation Level of the risk evaluation exposure.
Retained surplus Retained surplus is equity less reserves – it represents the accumulated results of the FRDC’s revenues and expenses, adjusted for any transfers to or from reserves.
Return on investment (ROI) The ratio of gain or loss on an investment relative to the amount invested. The amount of gain or loss may be referred to as interest, profit/loss, gain/loss, or net income/loss. The investment may be referred to as the asset, capital, principal, or the cost basis of the investment. ROI is usually expressed as a percentage rather than a fraction.
Risk “the effect of uncertainty on objectives”

An event, circumstance or change that could have a positive or negative impact on objectives, and how an opportunity can be realised or how a threat may arise

event + impact = risk

Risk appetite

The amount of risk an entity is willing to accept or retain in order to achieve its objectives. It is a statement or series of statements that describes the entity's attitude towards risk taking. Determining an entity's risk appetite occurs through the development of risk appetite statements which clearly set out what the executive consider to be acceptable risk-taking.

Risk appetite statements are usually aligned to categories of risk eg. financial, people and reputation risks. Risk appetite statements will look and feel different according to an entity's internal and external context to be followed. If these are not calibrated, the resultant actions may be skewed either too lightly (e.g no action required) or result in an over-controlled risk response.

Risk control The process of selecting and applying measures which will either: eliminate the hazard altogether (risk = 0); or reduce the risk of injury to an acceptable level.
Risk management Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritisation of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximise the realisation of opportunities.
Risk monitoring

The process of checking that the selected risk control measures are effective.

Risk tolerance

The levels of risk taking acceptable to achieve a specific objective or manage a category of risk. Risk tolerance represents the practical application of risk appetite and is typically aligned to categories of risk such as strategy, financial, people or reputation.

While risk appetite usually involves qualitative statements, risk tolerance operationalises the statements by using quantitative measures where possible, to better enable monitoring and review.

Risk appetite sets the tone for risk taking in general, whilst tolerance informs:

  • expectations for mitigating, accepting and pursuing specific types of risk
  • boundaries and thresholds of acceptable risk taking
  • actions to be taken or consequence for acting beyond approved tolerances
Root Cause Analysis Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving that tries to identify the root causes of faults or problems.[1] A root cause is a cause that once removed from the problem fault sequence, prevents the final undesirable event from recurring.
Scientific name The unique scientific name for a fish determined as per international convention and consisting of a genus name and a species name - the scientific names used in the Australian Fish Names Standard (AFNS) are the scientific names used in CSIRO’s CAAB Database or as otherwise advised by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research or another competent authority.
Secure channel Out-of-band console management or channels using strong encryption according to the encryption policy. Non-encrypted channels will use strong user authentication (one-time passwords).
Social media Social media is content (text information, images, video and audio) created and shared by individuals or businesses on freely available websites within the entire internet (open community) or within a group of select contacts (gated community)
Social media - official use When an FRDC employees is posting factual information on any social media site either in response to, or about a new topic that related to FRDC’s work
Social media – professional use When an employee is commenting personally but as an experienced person in a particular field
Sponsorship The FRDC will sponsor conferences, workshops, seminars, etc that adhere to criteria outlined in the Research, development and extension (RD&E) investment framework policy
Stakeholder People, organisations or groups with an interest or stake in FRDC’s business. The FRDC’s stakeholders are the fishing industry, fishing research providers, the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments and relevant Ministers and the people of Australia.

Note that this does not include FRDC personnel.

Standard - SDO A document, established by consensus and approved by a recognised body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context

{Source: Standards Australia Standardization Guide 001].

AS/NZS ISO 9001: 2008 being the standard applied to become and retain quality accreditation.

Standards development activity
  • To develop a new standard in areas that are not covered by an existing standard.
  • To develop a new standard to complement or to support existing standards.
  • To revise or amend an existing standard, where the content may not be current or appropriate.
  • To adopt certain categories of Australian, industry, or international standards or guidelines.
Standards reference body The committee of technical experts having the responsibility for the technical content of the standard they are developing.
Standing Committee on Primary Industries Fosters an operating climate that encourages National and regional RD&E coordination and collaboration.
Stock assessment The routine collection of data which is then used to determine the status of a fish stock and its habitat. This information is used by management to determine the allowable catch, and set the harvest rules, and the methods for harvesting.
Subprogram A structure formed by the FRDC with an allocated budget to manage a suite of cross-sectoral projects over a specified time period. This can be either an initiative of the FRDC, or at the request of a stakeholder group.
Supplier An organisation or person contracted by the FRDC to provide a product or service.
Symmetric cryptosystem A method of encryption in which the same key is used for both encryption and decryption of the data.
Systemic Something that affects the whole instead of just parts.
Target salary cap The maximum amount an employee can be remunerated in the new financial year.
Taxonomic group name An animal or plant’s taxonomic group name as per international convention. The taxonomic group names used in the Australian Fish Names Standard (AFNS) are those advised by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, or another competent authority.
Technical content - SDO The requirements, specifications, and/or recommendations, and associated tables and figures, that comprise the body of the standard. The technical content is developed within the scope of the standard.
Technology transfer Any process, active or passive, by which intellectual property or the knowledge it embodies is transferred from its originator into productive use. Examples include publications, seminars, course programs, cooperative RD&E, consulting, training, licensing, sale of technology, and formation of spin-offs.
Term deposit A deposit held at a financial institution that has a fixed term. These are generally short-term with maturities ranging anywhere from a month to a few years. When a term deposit is purchased, the lender (the customer) understands that the money can only be withdrawn after the term has ended or by giving a predetermined number of days’ notice.
Torres Strait Islander Torres Strait Islander peoples come from the islands of the Torres Strait, between the tip of Cape York in Queensland and Papua New Guinea.
Unavailable (in the context of Business Continuity) FRDC employees or directors who cannot be located or contacted for more than 2 hours after an incident.
Untrusted network Any network firewalled off from the corporate network to avoid impairment of production resources from irregular network traffic (lab networks), unauthorized access (partner networks, the internet etc.), or anything else identified as a potential threat to those resources.
User Those who predominantly represent end users of the subject product(s), material(s), or service(s) and who are not involved in any way in production and/or distribution of the subject product(s), material(s) or service(s).

NOTE : Users can include consumers; general interest users; industrial users where the product(s), material(s), or service(s) is an input to a manufacturing or fabrication process; and labour users where the product(s), material(s), or service(s) may be used in the workplace.

User acceptance testing (UAT) User acceptance is a type of testing performed by the Client to certify the system with respect to the requirements that was agreed upon. This testing happens in the final phase of testing before moving the software application to Market or Production environment.

The main purpose of this testing is to validate the end to end business flow.

Vault Metadata within records management system that groups documents no longer in use
Web calendar Online calendar displaying FRDC activities on the FRDC website
Web server – external The server on which the FRDC website is located.
Web service A web service produces a map of spatially referenced data dynamically from geographic information, rendered as a PNG or JPEG. A web service is not the data itself.
Web service provider An external consultant who specialises in web design and maintenance.
Website The FRDC website is an online communication tool for the FRDC and provides users with access to a comprehensive array of information on the FRDC and its activities
Wellbeing A good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterised by health, happiness and prosperity.
Work guide A work guide is an informal checklist of required actions for a particular activity. These documents are not formally controlled by being signed off by the ED. The formats for these documents are not specified and they can be written as is needed by the writer. The standardisation of work guides is limited to the title block in each document and its footer only (which notes required information). Sometimes a work guide will develop into a procedure as it matures and its level of complexity increases.
Worker A person is a worker if the person carries out work in any capacity for a person conducting a business or undertaking, including employees, contractors and volunteers.
Workplace A workplace is a place where work is carried out for a business or undertaking and includes any place where a Worker goes, or is likely to be, while at work
Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) risk management

A planned, systematic process for reducing workplace injury and illness involving the following four steps:

  • hazard identification
  • risk assessment
  • risk control
  • monitoring and review
Workplace mental health A state of well-being where individuals can cope with the normal stresses of life and contribute to their work community.